Three Colourful Situations



Photo by kind courtesy of copyright holder, Frances Sharp

 What's the nature of the life-forms growing on Stonehenge?
What's the true nature of this rootball?
Here we see another example of the same relationship - which is, of course, a symbiotic partnership.  With the lichen it's a metabolic partnership of an alga and a fungus.  With the rootball a metabolic partnership of plant and fungus
The hummingbird - flower symbiosis is a mixture of metabolic and behavioural symbiosis. 
Virolution explains how the  vast numbers of viruses in our human genome are also symbiotic and thus follow the same genetic rules of symbiosis in our human evolution.   The implications are considerable.  Frank Ryan  was appointed by the Deans of Medicine and Animal and Plant Sciences at Sheffield University to help translate the evolutionary biology into medicine.
The more scientific reader may be interested in the fact that he has written a five part review series on the application of modern evolutionary biology to medicine for the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine.  Viral symbiosis does not contradict classical evolutionary concepts.  Rather it complements these, while expanding the scope of evolutionary biology and our understanding of the genetic basis of medicine.
See if you can work out the level at which natural selection must be working?